Cymatics is an aspect of Nature that has been known for centuries, possibly millennia, and it has a rich and fascinating history with many twists and turns.
Direct ocular viewing of vibrations typically involves exciting inorganic matter such as particulate matter, pastes (both magnetic and non magnetic) and liquids under the influence of sound, although recent research has extended the range of media to include organic matter, and the range of viewing has been extended to include the light microscope. The scientific term for this field of science is ‘Faraday Wave phenomena’, after the famous English scientist, Michael Faraday, and named ‘cymatics’ by Hans Jenny, a Swiss pioneer in this field.
The word ‘Cymatics’ derives from the Greek ‘kuma’ meaning ‘billow’ or ‘wave,’ to describe the periodic effects that sound and vibration has on matter. The apparatus employed can be simple, such as a Chladni Plate (a flat brass plate excited by a violin bow) or advanced such as the CymaScope Pro, a laboratory instrument invented and developed by English acoustics engineer, John Stuart Reid, which makes visible the inherent geometries within sound and music by imprinting their vibrations onto pure water.
The provenance of Cymatics can be traced back at least 1000 years to African tribes who used the taut skin of drums sprinkled with small grains to divine future events.¹ The drum is one of the oldest known musical instruments² therefore the effects of sand on a vibrating drumhead may have been known for millennia.
Leonardo Da Vinci (b 1452 d 1519)
Few will be surprised to learn that the first person to leave a written record of the cymatic phenomenon was none other than Leonardo da Vinci. In the late 1400’s, after observing how the dust motes on his worktable stirred to create shapes when he vibrated the table, he wrote:
“I say that when a table is struck along diverse lines, the dust on it is concentrates in various shapes of hills and small mountains…. The dust which divides itself into various mountains on the struck table descends from the hypotenuse of these hillocks, enters beneath their bases and raises again around the axis of the region under the top of the mountain.” 3
Da Vinci’s recorded observation is profound because in addition to describing the effect of vibration on matter, his thoughts can be translated as a description of life itself. “The dust… descends from the hypotenuse of these hillocks…and raises again….” In a right angle triangle the hypotenuse is given by the square root of 2, which relates to the division of unity in the generative archetype. Two examples in Nature are cellular division following the moment of conception and the division of a plant’s seed. The generation of many from unity is an intrinsic aspect of living systems. Leonardo’s observation of dust under the influence of vibration was, quite literally, a demonstration of the generative archetype that makes all life.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Galileo Galilei (b 1564 d 1642)
Fifty years after Leonardo’s observation, Galileo Galilei discovered a related phenomenon when scraping an iron chisel across a brass plate. He wrote:
“Scraping a brass plate with an iron chisel to remove some spots from it, I heard the plate emit a rather strong and clear note once or twice in many strokes as I moved the chisel rapidly over it. Looking at the plate, I saw a long row of thin lines, parallel to one another and at exactly equal distances apart. Scraping again, many times, I noticed that it was only when a stroke made this noise that the chisel left marks on the plate, and when it went without the shrill tone, there was not the faintest trace of such lines. As I repeated the trick again and again, stroking now with greater and again with less speed, the sound was of higher pitch; and I observed that the marks made during the shriller tone were closer together, and those made during the lower tone less so. Sometimes also, according as the stroke itself was made faster at the end than the beginning, the sound was heard to rise in pitch and the lines were seen to increase in frequency, though always marked with extreme neatness and absolutely parallel. During the sibilant strokes, moreover, I felt the iron tremble in my hand, from which a kind of tenseness ran through me”.4
It is obvious from Galileo’s observations that he was unaware of Leonardo’s experiments with dust on a table and that in scraping a brass plate with a chisel to create sound he was, unknowingly presaging the research of Robert Hooke and Ernst Chladni who would both come after him. Galileo’s comments concerning the trembling sensations he experienced during the sibilant strokes presaged the therapeutic sound modalities of a future world he could not have predicted.
Robert Hooke (b 1635 d 1703)
Robert Hooke was an English scientist of Oxford University and in 1662 became the first Curator of the Royal Society. Hooke made contributions to many scientific fields including optics, gases, mechanics, physics and astronomy. In the field of acoustics, in 1676 he invented a toothed brass wheel device for making sounds of different frequency, working with clockmaker Thomas Tompion, eventually publishing his findings in 1705. Over a century later it seems likely that Hooke’s toothed wheel experiment inspired the French physicist, Felix Savart, who, in 1830, built a similar device, which history now recognizes as the Savart Wheel, but more properly should be named the Hooke-Savart wheel. In March 1671, for the benefit of two visiting Italian noblemen, Hooke demonstrated the effect of striking or vibrating a shallow glass dish containing flour. When the vibration caused the flour to rise up the glass and run like a fluid he commented, “it might suggest an hypothesis for explaining the motion of gravity.” 5
Then, on March 30, 1671 he found that different strokes on a glass bell-jar made different sounds, and that each sound produced its own pattern of movement in the flour. Sir Christopher Wren, the famous architect, astronomer and physicist, had suggested using a violin bow to excite the glass, resulting in Hooke obtaining what are now referred to as ‘Chladni Figures’: “manifest by this experiment, that every different stroke makes a different sound, so making of a different impression upon the flour gives it as many different motions.”6 In other words, the strokes of the violin bow caused the flour to create patterns, each of which indicated a different mode of vibration. Therefore, more properly, Chladni Figures should be renamed Hooke-Chladni Figures so that Hooke is honoured for his contribution and perhaps inspiring Chladni.
It is not known whether Hooke had access to the notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci or Galileo Galilei.
Professor Larry Griffing proposes that knowledge of the identify of the sitter was suppressed by Isaac Newton’s influence as Hooke’s theories might claim precedence to Newton’s.
Ernst Chladni (b 1756 d 1827)
Earnst Chladni, a German musician and scientist and sometimes known as “the father of acoustics,” almost certainly had access to Hooke’s work but it is Chladni who history has chosen to acknowledge for his major study of this class of phenomena. He used a sand-strewn brass plate, excited by a violin bow; since brass is a highly resonant material he found that a large number of archetypal geometric patterns could be created, depending on where on the edge of the plate the bow was drawn. These patterns are now known as “Chladni Figures.” His pioneering book “Entdeckungen über die Theorie des Klanges” 7 (“Discoveries in the Theory of Sound”) was published in 1787 and is still considered an important milestone in launching the science of acoustics.
Chladni demonstrated this seemingly magical phenomenon all over Europe and even had an audience with Napoleon. The French leader was so impressed he sponsored a competition with The French Academy of Sciences to acquire a mathematical explanation of the sand patterns. Sophie Germain (1776–1831), a young French woman, won Napoleon’s 3,000 Franc prize. She wrote three papers on the subject; the third paper provided a mathematical explanation involving a differential equation describing the governing dynamics of the geometric patterns. Her seminal paper titled “Recherches sur la théorie des surfaces élastique” (“Researches on the theory of elastic surfaces”)8 was published in 1816.
Ernst Chladni (1756-1827)
Michael Faraday, (b 1791 d 1867)
Thirty years later, chemist and physicist Michael Faraday, who had read Chladni’s work, put his own stamp on the phenomenon, calling these sound figures ‘crispations’. He sensed that they might offer a way to probe the very nature of light and electricity. In an extraordinarily prophetic letter he deposited in the Royal Society’s safe in March 1832, he wrote,“I am inclined to compare the diffusion of magnetic forces from a magnetic pole to the vibrations upon the surface of disturbed water … that the vibratory theory will apply to these phenomena as it does to sound and most probably to light.” 9
Faraday had seen tantalising glimpses of liquid-based crispations phenomena created by mechanically induced vibration while working in the Royal Institution’s basement laboratory. Today, water-based cymatic interactions are used as a tool for modelling vibratory phenomena, and it is clear that Faraday was close to achieving precisely that, but lacked the electronic oscillators and other specialist tools and facilities that were necessary. After six intensive months of work, he terminated this line of research. Fortunately, his notebooks remain extant. Faraday was significantly affected by the beauty of the patterns and studied the effects of vibration on water, egg white, oil and fine grains. Faraday was fascinated by these phenomena and always sensible of good demonstrations to his audiences at the Royal Institution. He wrote:
“On putting a candle exactly below this plate and holding a screen of tracing paper an inch above it, the picture given was beautiful. Each heap [of sand] gave a star…of light at its focus which twinkled, i.e. appeared and disappeared with the heap continually as it rose and fell. At the corners…a fainter light appeared, and then as the screen was nearer or farther lines of light in 2 or even 4 directions appeared (constant). This was exceedingly beautiful and easily rendered visible to a large audience.” 10
Unusually, Faraday did not identify any potential applications for crispations, which is reminiscent of the invention of the laser, of which someone once said it was a solution looking for a problem, that is, no one had thought of how it could be applied. Yet today, lasers are used in almost all aspects of life and science. The same may one day be true of cymatics; already we are beginning to discover many new applications for cymatics, but a century from now, perhaps cymatics will be as well known and as useful as laser technology.
Lord Rayleigh, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (b 1842 d 1919)
Lord Raleigh was an English physicist and second Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge University following James Clerk Maxwell. Rayleigh earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904, along with William Ramsay, for the discovery of the element argon. He also discovered surface waves in seismology, now known as Rayleigh waves. His major treatise, “Theory of Sound,” 11 in two volumes, includes a chapter on the ‘Vibrations of Plates’ and is still considered an important work. In it he explored modal phenomena in depth, now part of the emergent science of cymatics.
Margaret Watts-Hughes (b 1848 d 1907)
Margaret Watts-Hughes was a Welsh opera singer who experimented with a device she invented in 1885 and named the ‘Eidophone’. Her invention consisted of a wooden resonating chamber with an open end, across which was stretched a rubber membrane, strewn with sand and other media. By singing into a tube that connected with the resonating chamber she was able to create what she termed “Voice Figures.”
She demonstrated the Eidophone at a Royal Society meeting held in Burlington House, London. It seems likely that she had been inspired by the work of Michael Faraday since she uses the term ‘crispations’ when discussing the patterns she observed, this word having been coined by Faraday. Like Faraday she was much taken with the beauty of the forms and in an article now accessible in the Cornell University Library wrote:
“…I have gone on singing into shape these peculiar forms, and stepping out of doors, have seen their parallels in the flowers, ferns, and trees around me; and again, as I have watched the little heaps in the formation of the floral figures gather themselves up and then shoot out their petals, just as a flower springs from the swollen bud—the hope has come to me that these humble experiments may afford some suggestions in regard to nature’s production of her own beautiful forms…”
She was able to take impressions of the voice figures by applying a coated glass plate onto the moist forms although it is not known what form the coating took. Margaret Watts-Hughes’ research paper “The Eidophone Voice Figures”,12 (1904) remains as testimony to her innovative approach to visualizing sound. A short biography of her life can be accessed in the online Dictionary of Welsh Biography. 13 There is also a helpful YouTube video of her work, by Cyfartha Castle Museum & Art Gallery.14
Mary Desiree Waller (b 1886 d 1959)
Mary D Waller was the daughter of the famous English physiologist, August D. Waller. Dr Waller became Professor of Physics at the Royal Free Hospital Medical School in London. She was fascinated by Chladni’s work and recreated all the forms he discovered, taking his work to a higher level. Her book “Chladni Figures—a Study in Symmetry” 15 was published posthumously in January 1961 and includes details of her novel method of exciting plates employing solid carbon dioxide chips, which she discovered accidentally, as this passage reveals, “In 1932 when it so happened that I was already specially interested in sonic frequencies in connection with some other research work, an itinerant vendor of ice-creams who was selling these to our medical students outside the school, asked me why his bicycle bell gave out a clattering ring when he touched it with Dry-Ice, the material supplied to him to keep his ice-creams frozen. He gave me a lump of solid carbon dioxide with which to experiment and I at once set about investigating this strange new phenomenon.”14 She approached the subject of Chladni Figures with scientific rigor and her work represents a rich resource for students of this branch of acoustics, including some of the mathematical equations that describe the phenomena. In the Preface to her book she hints at her discovery of two new general principles concerning symmetries of the vibrations [made visible on metal plates] and she later discusses, in the main body of her book, why these laws have not been recognized before.
Mary D Waller
Hans Jenny (b 1904 d 1972)
Hans Jenny was a Swiss medical doctor, who coined the word ‘cymatics’ from the Greek word ‘kyma’, meaning wave, to describe the periodic effects that sound and vibration has on matter. Jenny published his first volume Kymatic, in 1967 16 and his second in 1972,17 the year he died. His two volumes are rich sources of cymatic imagery, which he observed and described in great detail, although leaving scientific and mathematical explanations to scientists who would come after him.
In his first volume he wrote:
“…the periodicity represents an aspect of the world, and at first its mysteriousness always inspires a feeling of the greatest astonishment… In attempting to observe the phenomena of vibration, one repeatedly feels a spontaneous urge to make the processes visible and to provide ocular evidence of their nature.” 18
He saw correlations between acoustic vibrations and nuclear physics realising that both are subject to the physical laws of periodicity, discussed in his second volume:
“Looking at the ‘pictures’ wave mechanics gives us of the electron of the H atom in its various states of excitement, with the surface probability of the electron … These clouds of electrons are oscillatory systems ordered according to proportions, number and symmetry …” 19
Jenny invented the “Tonoscope” a device similar to Margaret Watts-Hughes’ Eidophone but including an electro-mechanical transducer to excite the membrane; he was also the first to suggest that such a device may one day assist deaf individuals to acquire speech. Jenny also excited steel plates using piezo crystal elements driven by an electronic oscillator, devices not available to Margaret Watts-Hughes and other acoustic pioneers of the past. The piezo crystal transducers were able to excite the plates in a wide range of frequencies, including high audible frequencies, resulting in the formation of complex sand-pattern forms. Jenny is often called the “Father of Cymatics.”
Alexander Lauterwasser is a German researcher and photographer basing his work on that of Hans Jenny. Lauterwasser is interested in the phenomenology and typography of the shapes formed by the effects of sound on water and in comparing the shapes with those that occur in nature, such as in the morphogenesis of creatures and the archetypal forms of inanimate matter. His 2002 book Wasser Klang Bilder (Water Sound Images)20 set new standards in cymatic imagery at that time.
Robert Boerman (b 1963)
Robert Boerman is a filmmaker, author, researcher, photographer, inventor and musician. In 2005 he became interested in the similarities between crop circles and cymatics, based on the work of the English researcher, Freddy Silva, via his book Secrets of the Fields. Boerman subsequently visited many crop circles in the Netherlands and created a water-based apparatus with which to create cymatic images that strongly resembled the crop circles he had witnessed. In 2020 he created a documentary, available on YouTube, titled, Cymatic Tartaria, focusing on the lost empire of Tartaria, in which he shows striking correspondences between cymatic patterns and Gothic and Islamic architectural features. He also sees correspondences between cymatic geometry and the natural world, for example, the petal arrangements of flowers. He has published four Dutch language books, titled Water Klank Beelden (Water Sound Images), the first of which is now available in English and contains many beautiful cymatic images.21
Gabriel Kelemen (b 1968)
Dr. Gabriel Kelemen is an artist and researcher, lecturer and head of the Art History and Theory department of the Faculty of Arts and Design at West University of Timişoara, Romania. He is considered a pioneer in the field of cymatics, which he has studied via primary experiments with a cymatic apparatus and via his drawings of the geometric patterns that occur on the surface of the liquids. Dr. Kelemen’s experiments are performed with the rigor and discipline of a physicist, while his artistic sensitivity brings a playfulness, for example in his startling three dimensional Cymatic “sculptures” that mimic natural forms. Focusing particularly on the interaction between the structure of the sphere and the spiral vortex and toroidal motions that are fundamental in structuring matter into form, his in-depth studies have led to an original theory— The Universality of the Sphere-Vortex Principle, in 2015. This was published as a lavishly illustrated book from ArtPress Publishing, Romania, as well as an academic paper on the same subject, which is available online.22 Kelemen’s work has garnered much respect in scientific and artistic circles within his native Romania, and his drawings, photos, videos and sculptures are becoming widely exhibited throughout Europe.
Thomas James Mitchell (b 1932 d 2018) and son, Stuart Mitchell (b 1965 d 2018)
Thomas J Mitchell and Stuart Mitchell were Scottish musicians who died within a few months of each other. Both men left legacies for humanity in their respective arts to nourish hearts and minds for generations to come. History will remember them, not only as the father-and-son team who decoded the Rosslyn Cubes, but men who understood the spiritual essence of the Universe.
Rosslyn Chapel, near Edinburgh, famous for its lavish carvings and its association with the Knights Templar, contained a mystery in the form of four sections of arches containing cymatic-like designs carved into the faces of 215 rectilinear cubes. Thomas studied the cubes for many years and together with Stuart, discovered that the patterns related to musical notes, to be read in a specific order. Thomas postulated that the builders of the chapel had access to Chladni-style plate and bow technology and deliberately encoded the melody into the cubes. His son, Stuart, orchestrated the music thus revealed, and named it “The Rosslyn Motet.” It was played on traditional medieval musical instruments in the chapel in September 2006. Mitchell’s book “Rosslyn Chapel – The Music of the Cubes” 23 was also published in 2006.
Regarding why William St Clair, builder of the chapel, chose to embed a musical score in such a coded manner, Thomas states in his Music of the Cubes book, ‘…it was a time of great danger for anyone who opposed the medieval church with heretical ideas…prior to this, the Knights Templar had been persecuted and disbanded by the political forces surrounding the church. William St Clair planned to enshrine the truths, which had been discovered in Jerusalem by the Templars, in the fabric of the chapel, within its sacred geometry and carvings…there for those with eyes to see and an open mind to consider’.
Whether it was the Knights Templar who brought the knowledge of the vibrating plates with their cymatic patterns to Scotland we may never know but the act of playing a Chladni plate and seeing beautiful forms emerge on its surface from formless sand or salt has a magical quality even today, while in the 15th century it would probably have been perceived as magic or witchcraft. Yet, it seems William St Clair realized that when the music was frozen in stone, its secret would be hidden in plain sight. As it turned out, it was a secret for half a millennium.
In addition to Thomas the musician, he was also an avid philosopher and read widely on quantum physics. In 2012 he wrote, “The esoteric idea that everything in the universe is in touch with everything else, instantly, beyond time and space, is difficult to grasp because of the mistaken belief that we are [merely] creatures of the physical universe, which makes us mistakenly use the physical body as our measuring stick, when [in fact] we are non-physical creators in our own spiritual universe within, and we create from our spiritual Source.”
Stuart Mitchell was a gifted musician and composer and his greatest work, “Seven Wonders—Suite for Orchestra”,24 is a series of seven pieces on the theme of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Stuart was passionately interested in the link between cymatics, DNA and music and his “DNA Variations—The Sea” 25 album contains eleven musical pieces that transcribe the mitochondrial DNA of sea creatures to music. Like his father, Stuart was a deeply spiritual man, not in a religious sense, but embracing a spirituality that transcended man-made religions and focused instead on love and reverence for Nature and the Universe.
Tommy and Stuart Mitchell
Stuart Mitchell playing piano in his Milan concert
James Stuart Reid (b 1982)
James Stuart Reid has a Bachelor of Science degree and is gifted with a natural flair for design. He is director of the CymaScope Lab2 facility and responsible for all DNA Voice Signature imaging, including colorization processes, and for all CymaScope video editing in Final Cut Pro. As a guitarist his musical talents represent an important asset in transcribing MusicMadeVisible projects, and in 2016 he made major contributions to development of the CymaScope app for Apple and Android devices. In 2018 he created the world’s first full length MusicMadeVisible video: Debussy’s Clair de Lune and in 2020 his work on Beethoven’s 250th anniversary tribute was hailed by many as ‘state-of-the-art’ in cymatics imagery. Also in 2020 his editing work on the Times Square, New York, tribute videos to health care workers in collaboration with the G.O.N.G. artist collective, has set new standards in making speech visible, cymascopically, in English, Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Creole.
James Stuart Reid
John Stuart Reid (b 1948)
John Stuart Reid is an English acoustics engineer and scientist who carried out cymatics research in the Great Pyramid of Egypt in 1997, designed to study the resonant behavior of the granite sarcophagus and the acoustics of the King’s Chamber. Reid published his research findings in Egyptian Sonics 26 , which documents this study, including hieroglyphic-like patterns that emerged in sand on a membrane stretched over the open top of the sarcophagus. His work in the Great Pyramid inspired him to develop the CymaScope, an instrument that makes sound visible by imprinting sound’s vibrations onto water. As the pages of this web site show, the CymaScope is an instrument that can be applied to many branches of science, since vibration underpins all physical processes.
Reid’s primary mission is to educate and inspire in the emergent science of cymatics, the study of visible sound. He speaks extensively on his research findings to audiences throughout the United States, United Kingdom and Europe, including regular presentations at the Water Conference, which focuses on the physics, chemistry and biology of water. He collaborates with scientists and Universities from many countries.
John Stuart Reid (b 1948)
John Stuart Reid in the Cymascope Lab
Reid’s scientific research is helping to elevate cymatics in the scientific arena, including a chapter in the science textbook The Mereon Matrix 27, in which he collaborated with the Mereon team of scientists, led by Lynnclaire Dennis. Dr Louis Kauffman, Professor of mathematics, said of the CymaScope instrument that it can be thought of as a quantum computer and upon first witnessing a CymaScope experiment in London he commented, “It is the most beautiful physics experiment I have ever witnessed.”
When Nobel Laureate, Professor Brian Josephson visited the CymaScope laboratory he commented, “Water exhibits remarkable structural and dynamic properties, including the ‘biological signal’ revealed by Beneviste and Montagnier and the complex acoustically-induced structures in water revealed by the CymaScope. Organised dynamical behaviour is more the province biology than of physics and will require different tools of investigation than are standard in physics. The CymaScope may be one such tool. It is not just a new scientific instrument but a new science as well and I suspect a new filed of maths”.
CymaScope-based research has contributed significantly to the body of knowledge concerning how dolphins see with sound, in collaboration with Jack Kassewitz of SpeakDolphin.com and published in the Journal of Marine Biology 28. A study focused on differentiating between the sounds emitted by healthy cells and cancer cells was a collaboration with Professor Sungchul Ji of Rutgers University, published in the Water Journal 29; and a study on the effects of music on human blood, published by on the Experiment.com web site 30, a collaboration with Professor Ji of Rutgers University, Sayer Ji of GreenMedInfo.com and Emily Abbey of Roadmusic.co, is the precursor to a paper on this research subject.
1. Encyclopedia of Religion Volume 4. Eliade, Mircea (Editor) – Mc Millan Free Press.
2. The History of Musical Instruments. Sachs, Curt. W.W. Norton & Co. New York.
3. Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Mac Curdy, E. 1938. Jonathan Cape, London.
4. Two New Sciences, Galileo Galei, translated by Stillman Drake, Wall and Thompson, Ontario, Canada.
5. The Forgotten Genius, Stephen Inwood, MacAdam/Cage, San Francisco.
6. Wilkin’s Lecture on Robert Hooke, by EN DA C. Andrade. https://www.jstor.org/stable/82545
7. Entdeckungen uber die Theory des Klanges. (“Discoveries in the Theory of Sound”) Chladni, Ernst F. 1787.
8. Complexities: women in mathematics, Case, BA, Princeton University Press.
9. Michael Faraday, A Biography, Williams LP, Chapman and Hall.
10. Faraday, The Life. Hamilton, J. Harper Collins, London.
11. Theory of Sound (Two Volumes) Strutt, John W. (Lord Rayleigh) 1877 and 1878
12. The Eidophone Voice Figures. Borderland Sciences Research Foundation.
14. See also: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0xqoS9rmaAA&feature=emb_logo
15. Chladni Figures, A Study in Symmetry. Waller, Mary D. 1961 G. Bell & Sons.
16. Cymatics (Volume 1) Jenny, Hans. 1967, Basilius Press.
17. Cymatics (Volume 2) Jenny, Hans. 1974, Basilius Press.
18. Cymatics (Volume 1) Jenny, Hans. 1967, Basilius Press.
19. Cymatics (Volume 2) Jenny, Hans. 1974, Basilius Press.
20. Wasser Klang Bilder. Lauterwasser, A., A T Verlag, Switzerland. English Edition: Water Sound Images. MACROmedia Publishing.
21. Water Sound Images, Boerman, R.
22. The Universality of the Sphere-Vortex Principle, Kelemen, D. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304744493_THE_UNIVERSALITY_OF_THE_SPHERE-VORTEX_PRINCIPLE_The_6th_International_Conference_COMEC_2015
23. Rosslyn Chapel, The Music of the Cubes. Mitchell, Thomas A. Diversion Books, a division of Divine Art Ltd. https://www.amazon.co.uk/Rosslyn-Chapel-Music-Thomas-Mitchell-ebook/dp/B009RVT2X4
24. Seven Wonders Suite for Orchestra, Mitchell, S.
25. DNA Variations—The Sea, Mitchell, S. https://www.reverbnation.com/stuartmitchell/song/23679684-dolphin-dna-variations-the-sea
26. Egyptian Sonics, Reid, JS. Sonic Age Ltd.
27. The Mereon Matrix, Ed, Dennis, L., Mc Nair, JB., Kaufmann, LH., Elsevier, London.
The Mereon Matrix was also published by World Scientific: ISBN: 978-981-3233-55-3
28. A Phenomenon Discovered While Imaging Dolphin Echolocation Sounds. DOI; 10.4172/2155-9910.1000202
29. Imaging Cancer and Healthy Cell Sounds in Water by CymaScope, followed by Quantitative Analysis by Planck-Shannon Classifier. http://dx.doi.org/10.14294/WATER.2019.6
30. Testing a 2,500 year-old hypothesis. https://experiment.com/u/8qj2Mw